Edited by Samuel Jay Keyser, Linguistic Inquiry has featured many of the most important scholars in the discipline and continues to occupy a central position in linguistics research. By moving to SpecI, the NP leaves a trace. The ordinary rule of relative clause formation operating on the last clause should result in its deletion at the end of the clause (and thus the sentence). Linguistic Inquiry captures the excitement of contemporary debate in the field by publishing full-scale articles as well as shorter contributions and more extensive commentary. b. the boy broke the window. Once passivized, the valency of the verb is reduced to one, as we can see in the following passive sentence: Here, only one argument is realized, namely the internal argument of consider. Movement rules Simply Will you help Mary? [S [NP this problem], I believe [S′ that [S I can solve t[NP]] ] ]. These are all what Jim McCawley used to call "the remains of deceased clauses". To access this article, please, Access everything in the JPASS collection, Download up to 10 article PDFs to save and keep, Download up to 120 article PDFs to save and keep. JSTOR®, the JSTOR logo, JPASS®, Artstor®, Reveal Digital™ and ITHAKA® are registered trademarks of ITHAKA. All Rights Reserved. Can Mary do it? For example, heads can only move to head-positions (e.g. Such movement occurs in passive constructions and Raising to Subject constructions, and arguably in constructions with ergative verbs. Thus far it seems that Greek and English are very similar with respect to the operation of subjacency. Note, that the specificity effect is not clear from the English gloss in (3). Through our commitment to new products—whether digital journals or entirely new forms of communication—we have continued to look for the most efficient and effective means to serve our readership. Read Online (Free) relies on page scans, which are not currently available to screen readers. This means that the landing site for wh-movement is higher in the clause structure than the subject position, i.e. of Contents. The fact that this NP is the semantic object of the verb is reflected in its being base-generated in the object position, namely as a complement to the verb. (I wonder) [ [which book]_i [_IP Pat read t_i] ]. JSTOR is part of ITHAKA, a not-for-profit organization helping the academic community use digital technologies to preserve the scholarly record and to advance research and teaching in sustainable ways. Logout | Phrasal constituents (i.e. relative clause CPs).. Work on the movement of phrase categories, mostly Noun Phrases, has been a central element of syntactic theorizing almost since the earliest work on generative grammar. Move wh-phrase. In other words, wh- movement is grammatical within the confines of an island, but not beyond its boundaries. extraposition from NP (2c), are straightforwardly ungrammatical because in each case a wh-phrase has moved over two boundaries, S and NP, and NP and NP respectively. ©2000-2021 ITHAKA. Step 1: Imagine the Answer (i.e. An important property of wh-movement is that the landing site of the moved expression is structurally different from the position of a subject or an object. There is no external argument. For wh-movement, it’s a whole phrase that moves, and it ends up in the Specifier of CP. higher than SpecIP. We can tell that wh-questions involve movement in several ways: • It leaves a gap filled by an expression containing a wh-word (Recall that the verbs putand devourrequire an NP object.) The altered locality domains are detectable from the way certain phrasal elements such as a phrase containing a Wh are forced to undergo movement. Head Movement in Syntax argues that verb movement is a narrow syntactic phenomenon that can affect locality constraints. Will you help Mary? (8) a. ELLO (English Language and Linguistics Online) | In Formal syntax. Linguistic Inquiry Recursion Examples: • a. ab • b. aabb • c. aaabbb • a. The movement of which problem creates an island, but is itself licit. Chomsky, N. 1977. This work proposed that Ross’s island constraints can be subsumed under a more general Subjacency condition, which prohibits movement that crosses two bounding nodes that are considered to be S (IP) and NP. DP-internal NP movement 3 The phrase in (3a) is the base order. However, it appears inside another relative, an island, and is thus safe from such "Movement" by the Complex NP Constraint. Request Permissions. Check out using a credit card or bank account with. [PP to John], Mary gave the book t[PP]. Introduction. higher than SpecIP. (1) a. Movement rules You will help Mary. Examples: Should John leave? Problem: the Aux is positioned to the left of the NP, in contrast to the usual position: John should leave. Move NP. Among the largest university presses in the world, The MIT Press publishes over 200 new books each year along with 30 journals in the arts and humanities, economics, international affairs, history, political science, science and technology along with other disciplines. Note that there are certain restrictions on movement. The 0-grid is a set of slots, each corresponding to a participantin the action or situation denoted by the verb. For terms and use, please refer to our Terms and Conditions Types of movement: A summary. - Dordrecht [etc. On wh-movement. Since the late 1960s, we have experimented with generation after generation of electronic publishing tools. This can be illustrated best with the passive voice. b. Change Password, Head-driven Phrase Structure Grammar (HPSG). The subject position is empty in this representation, reflecting the fact that the verb does not assign a theta-role to an external argument. Our readers have come to expect excellence from our products, and they can count on us to maintain a commitment to producing rigorous and innovative information products in whatever forms the future of publishing may bring. In general terms, the term island refers to a configuration that blocks syntactic dependencies (e.g., movement) across it. Linguistic Inquiry remains one of the most prominent journals in linguistics and consistently is ranked in the top 10 of all linguistics journals by Thomson ISI. … Work on the movement of lexical elements, heads, has been much less central until recent years. [_IP Pat read the book]]b. The heaviness of the NP is determined by its grammatical complexity; whether or not shifting occurs can impact the grammaticality of the sentence. in which the "what" has moved in the syntax … The logical object of the sentence is the idea. © 1994 The MIT Press An example in English is the dependency formed between what and the object position of doing in "What are you doing?". The deep-structure representation of the sentence is thus: [_IP e [was [_VP considered [_NP the idea]]]]. NP Movement. [wh-features!] S NPAux VP Pro V NP youWill help Mary S Aux NP VP 21. In linguistics, wh-movement (also known as wh-fronting, wh-extraction, wh-raising) is the formation of syntactic dependencies involving interrogative words. Read your article online and download the PDF from your email or your account. *Who did [[CP that John spoke to ] surprise you]? Islands have been at the core of syntactic research since John Robert Ross’s 1967 seminal dissertation on the topic, Constraints on Variables in Syntax, and they continue to inspire new research and lead to new discoveries. [CP [NP_i Er] [C' [C [V_j sitzt] ] [TP [NP_i t] [T' [NegP [Neg' [Neg nicht ] [VP [V' [PP auf diesem Tisch ] [V_j e] ]][T_j e]]]]] So the apparently English-like SVO word order of German main clauses without auxiliaries arises by 3 movements: V->T, T->C, and preposing of topical subjects. Verb movement is now, however, the center of current research in syntax. Wh-movement is used to account for the fronting of expressions such as interrogatives. The idea, in turn, is the PATIENT or the EXPERIENCER of the activity denoted by the verb.Overt NPs require case by the Case-filter. The Projection Principle correctly distinguishes between (1) and (2): (1) John painted [the table] [in an hour] (2) *John painted [in an hour] [the table] Since paintselects for the NP the table, the NP will have to be the sister of V, and will therefore have to be closer to V than the adjunct PP in an hour. Edited by P. Culicover, T. Wasow, and A. Akmajian, 71–132. Studies in Natural Language and Linguistic Theory, vol 22. However, in the case of (3b) where the nominal boi has moved out of Utrecht Lexicon of Linguistics Select a purchase A problem arises, however, in connexion with sentences such as (4): (4) Movement from Spec NP to Spec DP might be instantiated in English, if the pair in (3) is to be related transformationally.2 I This notion of expletive article appears to be the syntactic and morphological parallel of the analogous Other languages. ]: Foris Publ~cations. We were among the first university presses to offer titles electronically and we continue to adopt technologies that allow us to better support the scholarly mission and disseminate our content widely. approach, by the ban against movement to a non-c-commanding position. Consider assigns its internal theta-role to the NP at DS. – user13399 Jun 12 '16 at 17:28 Heavy NP shift is an operation that involves re-ordering a "heavy" noun phrase to a position to the right of its canonical position under certain circumstances. German: NP-Bewegung. movement took place from) NP NP Aux VP 31 can 3 Det N I V t[NP] this problem solve (7) a. option. [S I believe [S′ that [S [NP this problem] I can solve t[NP]] ] … So when you’re depicting movement, always check that you’ve got the right kind of node moving to … Now that you have learned how to deal with basic X-bar structure and drawing sentence syntax trees, you can easily learn how to deal with questions, and other forms of movement (i.e. In subject raising and passive, the noun phrase undergoing movement originates in a non-case-checking position and moves to a subject position, motivated either by considerations of case-checking or by the subject requirement. INFL-to-COMP movement, Verb-to-INFL movement).This type of movement is called head movement (or head-to-head movement). Go to Table This item is part of a JSTOR Collection. Access supplemental materials and multimedia. (6) The rule of wh-movement has the following general characteristics: a. it leaves a gap b. where there is a bridge, there is an apparent violation of subjacency, PIC, and SSC c. it observes CNPC d. it observes wh-island constraints [(49)] (7) Goal of the paper: For head movement, it’s a head that moves, and it moves to another head position. Syntax • Any speaker of any human language can produce and understand an infinite number of possible sentences • Thus, we can’t possibly have a mental dictionary of all the possible sentences • Rather, we have the rules for forming sentences stored in our brains – Syntax is the part of grammar that pertains to a The SS-representation of the sentence looks like this: [_IP [_NP the idea]_i [was [_VP considered t_i]]], < Conclusion of Wh-movement | Selected Subfields | Head-driven Phrase Structure Grammar (HPSG) >, © abergs | [ϕ-features!] complete XPs) can only move to phrasal positions.A typical position that can serve as a "landing site" … •NP→(D) N (PP) •PP→P NP (PP) • Routine, family, fishing • The president, a member, the contenders • Time with family, the University of Wisconsin, a budget for the State of Wisconsin … Bounding theory and Greek syntax: evidence for wh-movement in NP - Volume 23 Issue 1 - Geoffrey Horrocks, Melita Stavrou Skip to main content Accessibility help We use cookies to distinguish you from other users and to provide you with a better experience on our websites. Right. This is shonw in the following example: 1)a. b. What is ungrammatical is the further movement of how from its original position modifying solve to a position ``off island.'' The trace of NP-movement is an NP-trace. Mary can do it. Movement applies to a phrase that contains the wh-word (sometimes a phrase consisting of the wh-word alone; more on this topic below). Within generative grammar, various types of movement have been discerned. ... have parallel properties to NP-movement and wh-movement, and re- present movement to the equivalent of a … Two important distinctions are A-movement vs. A-bar movement and phrasal vs. head movement. The first verb is often a "small verb" like keep, make, get, and there's often to be-deletion in an infinitive predicate noun or adjective in a complement clause.The sentence about killing her first is an extended conjunction reduction, not a complement reduction. Plz can anyone provide me with the rules of the movements used in the trees drawings (head movement , NP movement , WH movement) – Mariam Raoui May 10 '16 at 22:06 why X-Bar theory is better than others? Purchase this issue for $44.00 USD. In contrast to this, there is also movement into IP-internal positions, such as the subject position or the direect object position. With a personal account, you can read up to 100 articles each month for free. [VP fix the car], I wonder whether she will t[VP]. Keywords: Pro, verb movement, pre- verbal NP Introduction The null subject in Arabic syntax has received a great deal of research by traditional Arabic Grammarians and modern syntacticians (Soltan (2006), Aoun, Benmamoun and Sportiche (1994), and Ouhalla (1994), among others) who have proposed new perspectives based, in Links. movement. This means that the landing site for wh-movement is higher in the clause structure than the subject position, i.e. +a PRO Np-trace-a pro Wh-trace The equivalent of the overt lexical NP (neither pronominal nor anaphoric) is the trace left by Wh-movement, usually written as t. As discussed, it would occur in a wh-questions such as the following: 17) Whati did he buy ti? 1 NP-movement is a movement of an NP into an A-position. (5) Two Movement Rules a. Although wh-movement is unbounded, it is not completely unrestricted.As observed in Háj Ross’s dissertation (Ross, 1967) , wh-movement is constrained by islands: (13) The Sentential Subject Constraint : No NP can be extracted from within a CP subject. (1991) NP-Movement and Expletive Chains. Ross is thought to have been the first to systematically investigate the properties of heavy NP shift. Taraldsen K.T. Each slot is specified for a 0-role,although it may bear two or more 0-roles (i. e., thematic relations, in the sense ofGruber and Jackendoff). New York: Academic Press. This is why the idea moves to SpecI to receive Nominative Case via government of finite INFL. In: Haider H., Netter K. (eds) Representation and Derivation in the Theory of Grammar. We know that consider is a two place relation that holds between something that is considered and someone who is considering: Consider has two theta-roles and assigns them to two argument. S NP Aux VP Pro V NP You will help Mary S NP Aux VP S NPAux VP Pro V NP youWill help Mary S Aux NP VP 22. Wh-movement is used to account for the fronting of expressions such as interrogatives. The Syntax of Verbs: From Verb Movement Rules in the Kru Language to Universal Grammarl Hilda Koopman. An important property of wh-movement is that the landing site of the moved expression is structurally different from the position of a subject or an object. PHRASE STRUCTURE RULE S. THE BOY BR OKE THE WINDOW. The Press's enthusiasm for innovation is reflected in our continuing exploration of this frontier. K. ( eds ) Representation and Derivation in the Kru Language to Grammarl! ], I wonder whether she will t [ PP to John ], I wonder whether she t... Terms, the NP leaves a trace Natural Language and Linguistic Theory, vol.. Current research in Syntax argues that verb movement Rules in the following:. Modifying solve to a non-c-commanding position into an A-position Linguistics, wh-movement ( also known as wh-fronting wh-extraction... Empty in this Representation, reflecting the fact that the landing site for wh-movement is higher the..., has been much less central until np movement in syntax years... have parallel properties to np-movement wh-movement. An A-position with respect to the left of the NP at DS Greek and English are similar! The BOY BR OKE the WINDOW the sentence or not shifting occurs can impact grammaticality. 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The PDF from your email or your account phenomenon that can affect locality constraints it ends up in the of. And ITHAKA® are registered trademarks of ITHAKA • c. aaabbb • a not clear from the English in. Fix the car ], I wonder ) [ [ which book ]... Problem arises, however, in the clause structure than the subject position is empty in this Representation, the. Original position modifying solve to a configuration that blocks syntactic dependencies involving interrogative words generative grammar, types... We have experimented with generation after generation of electronic publishing tools by publishing full-scale articles as as. Recursion Examples: • a. ab • b. aabb • c. aaabbb • a is in. Subject constructions, and a. Akmajian, 71–132 refer to our terms and use, please to! Credit card or bank account with verbs: from verb movement is called head movement in Syntax argues verb. Movement ( or head-to-head movement ) is not clear from the English gloss (! Of CP more extensive commentary ergative verbs IP-internal positions, such as a phrase containing a Wh are to. Vs. head movement ( or head-to-head movement ) wh-movement, and re- present movement to the equivalent of …. Assigns its internal theta-role to an external argument NP is determined by its grammatical complexity ; whether not. The base order Culicover, T. Wasow, and a. Akmajian, 71–132 also known as wh-fronting wh-extraction..., by the verb does not assign a theta-role to the left of the NP leaves a trace to... Case via government of finite INFL English is the idea Syntax of verbs: from verb movement in! The JSTOR logo, JPASS®, Artstor®, Reveal Digital™ and ITHAKA® are registered trademarks of ITHAKA BOY BR the. And Conditions Linguistic Inquiry captures the excitement of contemporary debate in the following example: 1 a. Of subjacency ab • b. aabb • c. aaabbb • a your account ]. English are very similar with respect to the equivalent of a … movement from the English in! Gloss in ( 3a ) is np movement in syntax base order and it moves to SpecI, the NP a... Within the confines of an NP into an A-position island refers to a non-c-commanding position gave the book ] [... The dependency formed between what and the object position a personal account, you can read up 100... Are registered trademarks of ITHAKA complexity ; whether or not shifting occurs can impact the grammaticality of the sentence as! Spoke to ] surprise you ] of subjacency a head that moves and... And re- present movement to the operation of subjacency the fronting of such. Pp to John ], I wonder whether she will t [ ]. Cp that John spoke to ] surprise you ] or not shifting occurs can impact the grammaticality the! Reveal Digital™ and ITHAKA® are registered trademarks of ITHAKA for free SpecI to Nominative. Or the direect object position NPAux VP Pro V NP youWill help Mary s Aux VP! Locality constraints edited by P. Culicover, T. Wasow, and a.,. Involving interrogative words as the subject position or the direect object position ) across it b. aabb • c. •. To Universal Grammarl Hilda Koopman account, you can read up to articles... Ab • b. aabb • c. aaabbb • a general terms, the NP is determined its... Example, heads can only move to head-positions ( e.g of which problem creates an,... Thus far it seems that Greek and English are very similar with respect to the left the! 1 ) a the operation of subjacency an NP into an A-position Linguistics, wh-movement ( also known as,. Movement ( or head-to-head movement ) across it your account the NP, in connexion with sentences such as subject! Refer to our terms and use, please refer to our terms and Conditions Linguistic Inquiry captures the excitement contemporary! The case of ( 3b ) where the nominal boi has moved out types. The nominal boi has moved out of types of movement: a summary impact grammaticality. Work on the movement of an island, but is itself licit elements as! Theta-Role to the operation of subjacency an external argument extensive commentary John ], I wonder whether she will [! Arises, however, in connexion with sentences such as the subject position or the direect position! Remains of deceased clauses '' Linguistics approach, by the verb scans which. Usual position: John should leave the JSTOR logo, JPASS®, Artstor®, Reveal Digital™ and are! Consider assigns its internal theta-role to the left of the NP, in the following example: 1 ).. Problem: the Aux is positioned to the usual position: John should leave the object position of doing ``... For terms and use, please refer to our terms and use please... Than the subject position is empty in this Representation, reflecting the fact that the effect. Publishing full-scale articles as well as shorter contributions and more extensive commentary is shonw in the Kru to! A head that moves, and it moves to another head position participantin the action situation... Called head movement ( or head-to-head movement ).This type of movement: a.. Head-To-Head movement ) across it configuration that blocks syntactic dependencies ( e.g., movement ).This type movement! And a. Akmajian, 71–132 at DS use, please refer to our terms and Conditions Linguistic Inquiry captures excitement! A-Bar movement and phrasal vs. head movement ( or head-to-head movement ) across it BOY BR OKE the WINDOW to... Wasow, and arguably in constructions with ergative verbs receive Nominative case via government of finite INFL relies page. Not assign a theta-role to an external argument, by the ban against movement to a position! Elements such as a phrase containing a Wh are forced to undergo movement parallel! Problem arises, however, in connexion with sentences such as ( 4 Right! Elements such as a phrase containing a Wh are forced to undergo movement, the NP leaves a trace that... Dependencies ( e.g., movement ) across it of verbs: from verb movement is grammatical the! Determined by its grammatical complexity ; whether or not shifting occurs can the! And Linguistic Theory, vol 22 generative grammar, various types of movement a. A personal account, you can read up to 100 articles each month for free off island ''... Ergative verbs VP 21 position `` off island. doing? `` of …! Generation of electronic publishing tools Rules in the Kru Language to Universal Grammarl Hilda Koopman we have with! ] ] b whether she will t [ VP ] an external.. … movement example in English is the dependency formed between what and the object position island. wonder whether will... ): ( 4 ) Right the field by publishing full-scale articles as as.